NASA has long carried out many studies that can be described as somewhat exotic but implicitly aimed at serving a future human marshal. The last of these studies was a comparative study of two astronauts, one of whom spent a full year at the ISS from 2015 to 2016, Scott Kelly, while his twin brother and colleague Mark Kelly was on the ground in the same period. The study revealed that changes in the human body in space, including genetic changes, do not last forever with some negative effects of the trip affecting the owner.
The study , published by NASA on Thursday, showed some surprising results of the comparison of the twins during Scott’s 340 days in space; while he and his brother Mark were under constant monitoring and testing to see how space affects humans and study genetic changes that occur in the long run or If you stay longer for a trip to Mars.
The return of most of the changes that accompanied Scott in space to normal after a short period of landing on the ground; and after 6 months, which included swelling of the feet and changes in the level of microbes present in the intestine as well as the loss of some cognitive abilities with the continuation of some negative effects such as damage Some cells.
However, the surprise was in the length of the terminal or telomere, which is at the end of the DNA chromosome. It is longer in the international space station. The telomere is a measure of aging. The more telomere the shorter the human life, the more surprising the researchers are. After the arrival of Scott to the ground to find that the telomere length has shrunk to become shorter compared to the results of the examination prior to the trip!
Through the study of the telomere, the agency is seeking to reverse the effects associated with aging and other diseases, where scientists are currently studying the possibility of increasing telomere length to overcome cancer.
This study is important because it studies the adaptation of humans in the space environment during a given period. It also outlines the long-term prediction of results. It also provides a deeper knowledge base for how people adapt to external pressures, including dealing with disease and human body response to drugs. Used in a different environment.